Frida Kahlo • 1907-1954 • Mexican Painter • Surrealism
• She grew up with three sisters and two half-sisters outside of Mexico City around the time of the Mexican Revolution. At age six she contracted polio which left her right leg permanently thinner than the left.
• She began painting after a bus accident left her in a body cast for three months. She suffered from relapses of extreme pain throughout her life and was forced to terminate two pregnancies due to her injuries.
• Diego Rivera encouraged her art and they later married. The marriage was turbulent and both were known to have extramarital affairs. After Kahlo found out Rivera had an affair with her younger sister they divorced. However, they later remarried.
Giorgio de Chirico • 1888-1978 • Italian Painter • Surrealism
• He studied in Athens, Florence, and then Munich. He was strongly influenced by the writings of Nietzsche and is most famous for his ‘Metaphysical Town Square’ paintings.
• He moved to Paris to join his brother. There he was noticed by Picasso and sold his first painting. He also signed an art contract with an art dealer.
• His first wife was a Russian ballerina. He spent the rest of his life with his second wife in Rome, in a house near the Spanish Steps.
Umberto Boccioni • 1882-1916 • Italian Artist • Futurism
• He studied Impressionism and Post-Impressionism styles in Paris before collaborating with other artists to write the Futurist Manifesto in Milan.
• He was one of the main theorists of Futurism which focused on ideas of the future, technology, speed, movement, violence, and industrialization.
• He was assigned to an artillery during the war. There, he died after being thrown off and trampled by a horse during a cavalry training exercise at the age of thirty-three.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler • 1834-1903 • American Painter • Realism
• His family moved to Russia in 1842 after his father got a job working on the railroad. They returned to Connecticut after his father died of Cholera.
• He began working for the military as a draftsman mapping out the U.S. coastline. He found the job boring and decided to move to Paris to pursue art full time. He never returned to the U.S. again.
• In Paris he became friends with Edouard Manet, Gustave Courbet, and other artists. After a trip to Chile he began painting a series of ‘Nocturnes,’ blue-green paintings of the harbor at moonlight.
Georgia O’Keeffe • 1887-1986 • American Painter • American Modernism
• Born to dairy farmers in Wisconsin, she studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and then began teaching.
• Her breakthrough came after exhibiting at photographer Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery. Stieglitz convinced O’Keeffe to move to New York and pursue painting. The two began dating despite the 23 year age gap and the fact that Stieglitz was married. They married after Stieglitz’s divorce.
• O’Keeffe later moved to New Mexico, though Stieglitz stayed in New York. She was the first woman to have a retrospective held in her honor at the Museum of Modern Art.
Henri Rousseau • 1844-1910 • French Painter • Post Impressionism
• He moved to Paris after his father’s death to work as a tax collector. He married his landlord’s fifteen year old daughter and they had six children (only one survived).
• He was self-taught and did not start painting until he was in his 40’s, after the death of his wife. Having never gone to the jungle, his inspiration came from illustrations, botanical gardens, and taxidermic animals.
• His work was often ridiculed during his lifetime and he would often play the violin on the streets to help support himself. He is now known for influencing Picasso and the Surrealists.
Félix Vallotton • 1865-1925 • Swiss Artist • Post Impressionism
• He moved to Paris to study art and became recognized for his highly reductive style of woodcuts. The woodcuts are thought to have influenced artists Edvard Munch and Ernst Kirchner.
• He then began concentrating on painting and became associated with Les Nabis.
• Throughout his life he also wrote art criticism, eight plays, and three novels.
Michaël Borremans • 1963-present • Belgian Artist • Contemporary
• He originally trained as a photographer before turning to painting and drawing. He uses old photographs as inspiration for his work.
• He worked as an art teacher in Belgium before his international breakthrough into the art world.
• His work has been influenced by artists such as Velazquez, Manet, and Magritte. Along with painting, he also creates films.
John Singer Sargent • 1856-1925 • American Painter • Realism
• He was born in Florence, Italy while his family was traveling Europe. He continued traveling throughout his life, remaining a US citizen but not visiting the United States until he was 21.
• He became good friends with Monet, though his work was more influenced by Velazquez than Impressionism. He became famous for his portraits and very successful with commission work.
• His painting ‘Portrait of Madame X’ caused so much controversy that he moved from Paris to London and considered giving up painting all together.
Marilyn Minter • 1948-present • American Artist • Photorealism
• She was raised and attended college in Florida. During this time she did a photographic series about her drug-addicted mother.
• After moving to New York City she became immersed in the nightclub scene. Her work often uses images from advertisements, fashion, and porn. Her video “Green Pink Caviar” was used in Madonna’s “Sweet and Sticky” tour.
• Her large-scale paintings are created by manipulating photographs with photoshop and then painting layers of enamel on aluminum. The final layer of paint is applied using fingertips to soften the edges.
Paul Signac • 1863-1935 • French Painter • Neo-Impressionism
• He studied to be an architect until he saw an exhibition of Monet’s work and decided to be a painter.
• In 1884 he met Georges Seurat. He then abandoned impressionism to follow Seurat’s scientific approach to painting with pointilism. He painted and became good friends with Van Gogh.
• He sailed around the coasts of Europe painting landscapes and spent time in St. Tropez. He is noted for inspiring the Fauves and was the first to buy a painting by Matisse.
Richard Diebenkorn • 1922-1993 • American Painter • Abstract Expressionism
• He was inspired by Edward Hopper, Clyfford Still, and Henri Matisse. He grew up in California and studied at Standford. He moved many times throughout his life.
• His most famous paintings, the “Ocean Park” series, are large-scale paintings based off aerial landscapes of California taken from a helicopter.
• He is also noted for his figure paintings that were part of the Bay Area Figurative Movement.